Edward Castronova
The Media School, Indiana University, Room 030H Franklin Hall
601 E Kirkwood, Bloomington, IN 47405
812-856-5981 / /

Google Scholar:

Name Change
I was married on December 31, 2000 and took my wife’s last name. Publications prior to that date are attributed to ‘Edward J. Bird.’ Publications afterward are attributed to ‘Edward Castronova.’


  • Professor of Media, Indiana University – Bloomington, 2014 –
    • Professor of Cognitive Science, 2010-
    • Adjunct Professor of Informatics, 2018 –
    • Chair, Media Arts and Production, 2015 – 2017
    • Director, BS in Game Design, 2014 – 2017
  • Professor of Telecommunications, Indiana University – Bloomington, 2010 – 2014
  • Associate Professor of Telecommunications, Indiana University- Bloomington, 2004 – 2009.
  • Associate Professor of Economics, CSU Fullerton, 2000 – 2004.
  • Associate Professor of Public Policy and Political Science, University of Rochester, 1997 – 2000.
  • Assistant Professor of Public Policy and Political Science, University of Rochester, 1991 – 1997.

Professional Affiliations
Research Professor, Deutsches Institut fϋr Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin
Fellow, Center for Governance, UCLA
Research Fellow, CESifo, University of Munich

PhD Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991
BS International Affairs, Georgetown University, 1985

Areas of Research Interest
Games, technology, and society


  1. Life is a Game Bloomsbury, 2020.
  2. Wildcat Currency: The Virtual Transformation of the Economy. Yale University Press, 2014.
  3. Virtual Economies: Principles and Design, with Vili Lehdonvirta. MIT Press, 2014.
  4. Exodus to the Virtual World: How Online Games Will Change Reality. Palgrave/MacMillan. 2007.
  5. Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games. University of Chicago Press. 2005.
  6. The Welfare Cost of Income Uncertainty. Boulder: Westview Press and Frankfurt:
    Campus Verlag. 1993.


  1. 2040: An American Insurgency, Compass Games. February 2023. Simulates a modern-day red vs. blue civil war in the United States. Important: The goal of the design was not to celebrate such a war but to warn against it.
  2. Twilight of the West, Academy Games. Forthcoming 2023. Simulates the international competition system that led to World War I.

Articles in Refereed Journals
Some available at SSRN

  1. “Preference Evolution, Attention, and Happiness,” Kyklos, Accepted December 2022.
  2. “Echoes of Purgatory in World of Warcraft: Shadowlands,” Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture Vol. 25 No. 4, 2022, pp. 122-139.
  3. “Results of a massive experiment on virtual currency endowments and money demand,” with Nenad Živić, Igor Andjelković, Tolga Özden, and Milovan Dekić, PLOS One,, October 18, 2017.
  4. “A model of climate policy using board game mechanics,” with Isaac Knowles. International Journal of Serious Games 2(3),[]=77, 2015.
  5. “Policy questions raised by virtual economies,” with Isaac Knowles and Travis L. Ross, Telecommunications Policy, 39(9) October 2015, pp. 787-795.
  6. “Digital Value Transfer Systems,” Washington and Lee Law Review Online v. 71, 2014.
  7. “Down with Dullness: Gaming the Academic Conference,” The Information Society 29:66-70, 2013.
  8. “Virtual Life Satisfaction,” with Gert G. Wagner, Kyklos 64(3) 313-328, 2011.
  9. “On Money and Magic,” Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2010,
  10.  “Sports Rules as Common Pool Resources: A Better Way to Respond to Doping,” with Gert G. Wagner, Economic Analysis and Policy 39(3), December 2009.
  11.  “Fertility and Virtual Reality,” Washington and Lee Law Review, 66(3) Summer 2009, 1085-1126.
  12. “Virtual Assisted Self Interviewing (VASI): An Expansion of Survey Data Collection Methods to the Virtual Worlds by Means of VDCI,” with Mark W. Bell and Gert G. Wagner, Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, Vol. 3 , No. 3, 2011,
  13. “As real as real? Macroeconomic behavior in a large-scale virtual world,” with Dmitri Williams, Yun Huang, Cuihua Shen, Brian Keegan, Rabindra Ratan, Li Xiong, Noshir Contractor, New Media and Society, New Media & Society 2009 11: 685-707.
  14. Castronova, E., Cummings, J., Emigh, W., Fatten, M., Mishler, N., Ross, T., & Ryan, W. (2009). Case study: The economics of Arden. In Special Issue of Critical Studies in Media Communication, 26(2), 165-179.
  15. “A Test of the Law of Demand in a Virtual World: Exploring the Petri Dish Approach to Social Science,” with Mark W. Bell, Marc Carlton, Robert Cornell, James J. Cummings, Will Emigh, Matthew Falk, Michael Fatten, Paul LaFourest, Nathan Mishler, Justin Reynard, Sarah Robbins, Travis Ross, Will Ryan, and Rory Starks, International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 1(2), 2009 pp. 1-16.
  16. “The Inevitable Erosion of the Magic Circle?” with Robert Cornell, Phoebe Elefante, and Travis Ross, translated by Olivier Mauco, Quaderni Autumn 2008, pp. 61-74.
  17. “Virtual Worlds: Petri Dishes, Rat Mazes, Supercolliders”, with Matthew Falk, Games and Culture; 2009 4:396 – 407.
  18. “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Real-Money Trade in the Products of Synthetic Economies.” Info. Vol. 8, No. 6, October 2006.
  19. “On the Research Value of Large Games: Natural Experiments in Norrath and Camelot.” Games and Culture. Vol. 1(2), April 2006, pp 163-186.
  20. “The Right to Play.” New York Law School Law Review. Vol. 49(1), 2004-2005, pp. 185-210.
  21. “Synthetic Economies and the Social Question.” First Monday Special Issue #7.
  22. “Game Design and Social Science,” Journal of Game Development 1(1), March 2004, pp 91-94.
  23. “The Price of Bodies: A Hedonic Analysis of Avatar Attributes in a Synthetic World.” Kyklos. Vol. 57(2), 2004, pp. 173-196.
  24. “The Demand for Credit Cards,” with Paul A. Hagstrom. Economic Inquiry.
    Vol. 42(2), April 2004, pp. 304-318.
  25. “Social Norms and Sexual Activity in U.S. High Schools.”Journal of Human Resources. Vol. 39(4) Fall 2004, pp. 912-937.
  26. “Achievement Bias in the Evolution of Preferences.” Journal of Bio-Economics.
    Vol. 6(2), 2004, pp. 195-226.
  27. “On Virtual Economies.” Game Studies. Vol. 3(2),
  28. “Network Technology, Markets, and the Growth of Synthetic Worlds.” Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Network and System Support for Games. New York: ACM Press, 2003, pp. 121-134.
  29. ”Income Risk and Social Spending: Empirical Estimates.” Schmoller’s Jahrbuch/Journal of Applied Social Science Studies. Heft 3/2002.
  30. “Immigrants, Natives, and Social Assistance: Comparable Take-Up Under Comparable Circumstances” with Joachim R. Frick, Hilke Kayser, and Gert G. Wagner. International Migration Review. Vol. 35(3), Fall 2001, 726-748.
  31. “Inequality and Income: The Mediating Effects of Social Spending and Risk.” Economics of Transition. Vol. 9(2), July 2001, pp. 395-415.
  32. “Does the Welfare State Induce Risk-Taking?” Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 80(3), June 2001, pp. 357-383.
  33. “Politics, Altruism, and the Definition of Poverty.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis. Vol. 1(3), 1999, pp. 269-91.
  34. “The Wealth Effects of Income Insurance,” with Paul A. Hagstrom. Review of Income and Wealth. Vol. 45(3), September 1999, pp. 339-352.
  35. “Can Welfare Policy Make Use of Social Norms?” Rationality and Society. Vol. 11(3), 1999, pp. 343-365.
  36. “Credit Card Debts of the Poor: High and Rising.” with Paul A. Hagstrom and Robert Wild. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Vol. 18(1), Winter 1999, pp. 125-133.
  37. “The Income of Socialist Upper Classes During The Transition to Capitalism:
    Evidence From Longitudinal East German Data.” with Joachim R. Frick and Gert G. Wagner. Journal of Comparative Economics. Vol. 26, 1998, 211-225.
  38. “Sport as a Common Property Resource: A Solution to the Dilemmas of Doping,” with Gert G. Wagner. Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 41(6), December 1997, 749-66.*
  39. “Repairing the Safety Net: Is the EITC the Right Patch?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Vol. 15(1), Winter 1996, pp. 1-31.
  40. “An Exploratory Comparison of Income Risk in Germany and the United States,” Review of Income and Wealth. Vol. 41(4), December 1995, pp. 1-22.
  41. “Wage Effects of the Move Toward Free Markets in East Germany,” with Gert G. Wagner and Johannes Schwarze. Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Vol. 47(3), April 1994, pp. 390-400.
  42. “The Supply Of Volunteer Labor: The Case Of Hospitals,” with Nancy L. Wolff and Burton A. Weisbrod. Nonprofit Management and Leadership. Vol. 4(1), Fall 1993, pp. 23-45.

Academic / Experimental Game Design 

  1. Virus: Bunny Alert (2019). This 80-person game simulates tactical, administrative, and political response to a viral outbreak in the form of killer rabbits. Players take on real-life roles such as Police Chief, ER Doctor, National Guard Commander, Governor, CDC Director, Newspaper Editor, etc. The object is to mobilize resources as a group to fight the bunny menace.
  2. The AA Game. A board game for people in alcoholism therapy. Players are on the drinking path until they hit bottom and go into recovery. Update 2022: The game is now available for sale at
  3. American Abyss: Student Edition. A simplified version of 2040: An American Insurgency, prepared as a classroom exercise for grades 10 and up, available at no cost from my website.
  4. Climate Policy, a modification of the commercial board game CO2. Introduces and explains real world climate policies. Published in International Journal of Serious Games.[]=77, 2015.
  5. The Jane Austen Game. Lead design and development. Card-driven game of marital strategy in the world of Jane Austen novels. Available at
  6. Greenland: A Persistent Political Economy in the Stone Age. Lead designer and executive producer. A political-economic simulation for studying the emergence of money.
  7. Arden: The World of William Shakespeare. Developer and Executive Producer. Led a team of students to build multiplayer video games for social science experiments. 2006-2007.

Book Chapters

  1. “Philosophy,” Routledge Companion to Imaginary Worlds, ed. Mark J. P. Wolf, Routledge 2017, pp. 127-133.
  2. “Worlds as Experiments,” Routledge Companion to Imaginary Worlds, ed. Mark J. P. Wolf, Routledge 2017, pp. 1298-304.
  3. “Religious Impulse in Video Games: Implications for World-Building,” in Mark J.P. Wolf (ed.), Revisiting Imaginary Worlds: A Subcreation Studies Anthology, Routledge 2017, pp. 116-126.
  4. “The Economics of Virtual Worlds,” with Isaac T. Knowles, in Johannes M. Bauer and Michael Latzer (eds.), Handbook on the Economics of the Internet , Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2015
  5. “Video games, virtual worlds, and economics,” with Isaac Knowles and Travis L. Ross, in Robert G. Picard and Steven S. Wildman (eds.), Handbook on the Economics of the Media, Chapter 11, 2015.
  6. “Virtual Economies” with Travis L. Ross, in Ryan, Marie-Laure, Lori Emerson, and Benjamin J. Robertson (eds.) The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media, Johns Hopkins, 2014, pp. 506-510.
  7. “Games and the Internet: Fertile Ground for Cultural Change,” for BBVA. 2014.
  8. “La Valeur des Choses Virtuelles,” in Lejade, Olivier and Mathieu Triclot (eds.) La Fabrique des Jeux Vidéo, Paris: Éditions de La Martinière, 2013, pp. 179-185.
  9. “Niggling Inequality: A Second Introduction to the Immersive Internet,” in The Immersive Internet, Robin Teigland and Dominic Power (eds.), Palgrave 2013, pp. 13-22.
  10. “Designer, Analyst, Tinker: How Game Analytics Will Contribute to Science,” with Travis L. Ross and Isaac Knowles. In Magy El-Nasr, Anders Drachen, and Alessandro Canossa (eds.) Game Analytics: Maximizing the Value of Player Data, Springer 2013, pp. 665-688
  11. “Empirical Research Methods in Virtual Worlds,” with Travis L. Ross and Gert G. Wagner, In Online Research Methods in Urban and Planning Studies: Design and Outcomes, Carlos Nunes Silva (ed), IGI Global 2012, pp. 299-311
  12. “Virtual Worlds as Petri Dishes for the Social and Behavioral Sciences,” in German Data Forum (eds.), Building on Progress: Expanding the Research Infrastructure for the Economic, Social, and Behavioral Sciences, Opladen: Budrich UniPress Ltd. 2010, pp. 595-606.
  13. “Synthetic Worlds As Experimental Instruments,” with Mark W. Bell, Robert Cornell, James J. Cummings, Matthew Falk, Travis Ross, Sarah B. Robbins-Bell, and Alida Field, in The Video Game Theory Reader 2, Bernard Perron and Mark J.P. Wolf (eds.), New York: Routledge, 2009, pp 273-294.
  14. “Virtual World Economics: A Case Study of the Economics of Arden,” with Mark W. Bell, James J. Cummings, Will Emigh, Matthew Falk, Michael Fatten, Nathan Mishler, Travis Ross, Will Ryan, in Heider, Don (ed.) Living Virtually. New York: Peter Lang, 2009, pp. 165-189
  15. “Theory of the Avatar,” in Jason Rutter (ed.), Digital Games Industries: Work, Knowledge, and Consumption, London: Ashgate 2008.
  16. “I mondi virtuali e Second Life,” with Mark W. Bell, in Di Bari, Vito (ed.), Web 2.0: Internet è Cambiato. E Voi? Milan: Il Sole 24 ORE, 2007, pp. 144-146.
  17. “What is a Synthetic World?” with James J. Cummings, Will Emigh, Michael Fatten, Nathan Mishler, Travis Ross, and Will Ryan; in Friederich von Borries, , Steffen Walz, and Matthias Böttger (eds) Space Time Play: Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level, Basel: Birkhäuser, 2007, pp. 174-181.
  18. “Rising US Income Inequality: Declining Opportunities or Diversifying Choices of Family, Work, and Education?” Research on Economic Inequality. Volume 8, Stamford: JAI Press, 1998, pp. 95-119.
  19. “Income Variation Among West German Households, 1983-1984.” in Ulrich Rendtel and Gert Wagner (eds.), Lebenslagen im Wandel: Zur Einkommensdynamik in Deutschland seit 1984. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 1991, pp. 409-436.

Essays and Articles

  1. “Virtually Vital,” Worth, March 1 2007.
  2. “Geekonomics: Why Abundance Sucks, and Other Unexpected Lessons of the Game Economy.” Wired04, April 2006.
  3. “Real Products in Imaginary Worlds.” Harvard Business Review. May 2005, pp. 19-20.
  4. “Game Development and Social Science.” Journal of Game Development. Vol. 1(1), March 2004, 91-94.
  5. “Introduction,” The Themis Group Annual Report, December 2003.
  6.  “The Effect of Redistribution on Income Risk: Estimates From the PACO Database.” Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung. German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin. Vol. 68(2), 1999, pp. 164-170.
  7.  “How East Germans Fared Through Unification: Accounting for Inflation and Decontrol,” Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung. German Institute for Economic Research, Vol. 63(1), 1994, pp. 53-59
  8. “Nonparametric Conditional Density Estimation of Pre- and Post-Tax Income.” In: National Tax Association-Tax Institute of America, Proceedings of the Eighty- Fifth Annual Conference. Columbus, 1993, pp 97-103.

Working Papers and Policy Reports

  1. “Players for Hire: Games and the Future of Low-Skill Work.” Gamasutra, October 12, 2o16.
  2. “Dragon Kill Points: A Summary Whitepaper,” with Joshua Fairfield. SSRN Working Paper, Abstract ID 958945.
  3. “The Price of ‘Man’ and ‘Woman’: A Hedonic Analysis of Avatar Attributes in a Virtual World,” CESifo Working Paper No. 957, May 2003.
  4. “Theory of the Avatar,” CESifo Working Paper No. 863, February 2003.
  5. “Achievement Bias in the Evolution of Preferences,” The Gruter Institute Working Papers on Law, Economics, and Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 2, Article 3, 2002.
  6. “On Virtual Economies,” CESifo Working Paper No. 752, July 2002.
  7. “Poverty in Orange County, 2002,” Center for Public Policy, Cal State Fullerton, July 2002.
  8. “To Aid, Insure, Transfer, or Control: What Drives the Welfare State?” Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Discussion Paper No. 281, April 2002.
  9. “Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier,” CESifo Working Paper No. 618, December 2001.
  10. “Poverty in Orange County, 2001,” Center for Public Policy, Cal State Fullerton, August 15, 2001.
  11. “Applying Game Theory to Games: The Common Property Aspects of Fair Play,” with Gert G. Wagner, CPR Digest, v. 51, January 2000.
  12. “Credit Cards and the Poor,” with Paul A. Hagstrom and Bob Wild, Focus, Institute for Research on Poverty, v. 20(2), Spring 1999, pp. 40-43.

Grants, Awards, and Fellowships

  1. “Study of Real-World Determinants of Virtual Economic Behavior,” Scientific Revenue Inc., $41,829.
  2. “Heuristica,” IARPA Sirius Program, Co-PI. Collaborative project with ARA, Georgia Tech Research Institute, and Wright State University. $11.3m total, $1.3m to IU, 2012-2015.
  3. “Virtual worlds as Petri Dishes.” $3m. NSF. Applied, not funded.
  4. National Science Foundation, $117,013, EAGER: An Exploratory Study of Systems Emerging Between Real and Virtual Economies, September 2010 – August 2011. Funded.
  5. “Virtual Worlds Pioneer” Award, Virtual Worlds Innovation Awards, 2008.
  6. German Institute for Economic Research (Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung), “Survey Tools in Second Life.” Two grants ($25,000 and $15,000 supplemental), January – December 2008. Funded.
  7. Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and Cleveland, “Monetary Experiments in a Persistent Political Economy,” May 2008 – April 2009, $330,000. Funded.
  8. MacArthur Foundation Grant, “Synthetic World Experiments and Impact,” June 2006 – October 2007. $240,000. Funded.
  9. NSF: Consultant on $250,000 exploratory grant to gather and analyze data from EverQuest II by Sony Online Entertainment. Dmitri Williams, Dan Hunter, and Nosh Contractor, co-PIs. June 2006 – June 2007. Funded.
  10. Award: Outstanding Faculty Recognition, Research, CSU Fullerton, 2004.
  11. Award: Drouillard Scholars Award, CSU Fullerton College of Business and Economics, 2002.
  12. Grant: Center for Public Policy, Cal State Fullerton: “Poverty in Orange County”, 2002. $1,200. Funded.
  13. Grant: Center for Public Policy, Cal State Fullerton: “Poverty in Orange County”, 2001. $1,200. Funded.
  14. Fellowship: German Institute for Economic Research, Summer 2000. $10,000. Funded.
  15. Grant: US Department of Agriculture, Summer 1995. $10,000. Funded.
  16. Fellowship: German Institute for Economic Research, Summer 1992. $10,000. Funded.
  17. Award: National Tax Association, Outstanding Dissertation in Public Economics. Second Place. 1992.
  18. Fellowship: German Academic Research Exchange Service, 1989-1990. $15,000. Funded.
  19. Fellowship: German Academic Research Exchange Service, 1985-1986. $10,000. Funded.

Refereed Conference Papers

  1. “The effect of camera perspective and session duration on training decision making in a serious video game,” Veinott, B.; Leonard, J. ; Papautsky, E.L. ; Perelman, B. ; Stankovic, A. ; Lorince, J. ; Hotaling, J. ; Ross, T. ; Todd, P. ; Castronova, E. ; Busemeyer, J. ; Hale, C. ; Catrambone, R. ; Whitaker, E. ; Fox, O. ; Flach, J. ; Hoffman, R.R., Games Innovation Conference (IGIC), 2013 IEEE International, pp 256-262.
  2. “Heuristica: Designing a serious game for improving decision making,” Mullinix, G.; Gray, O. ; Colado, J. ; Veinott, E. ; Leonard, J. ; Papautsky, E.L. ; Argenta, C. ; Clover, M. ; Sickles, S. ; Castronova, E. ; Todd, P.M. ; Ross, T. ; Lorince, J. ; Hoteling, J. ; Mayell, S. ; Hale, C. ; Whitaker, E. ; Hoffman, R.R. ; Fox, O. ; Flach, J., Games Innovation Conference (IGIC), 2013 IEEE International, pp 250-255.

Conference Leadership

  1. Ludium II. Indiana University, June 22-23, 2007. Organizer.
  2. Ludium I. Indiana University, September 29 – October 1, 2005. Organizer.
  3. Conference Coordinator, State of Play III Conference (NYLS/Yale/Harvard Law School) 2005.
  4. Conference Coordinator, State of Play II Conference (NYLS/Yale Law School) 2004.
  5. Editorial Board, Other Players Conference, Copenhagen 2004.

Speaking Engagements. Unless otherwise noted, all engagements are invited talks. *Keynote address. **Classroom guest lecture. +Conference paper. ++Virtual appearance.

As of October 2012, I no longer update this list.

  1. Ethics in Video Games, Depauw University, October 2012.
  2. TED Talk May 2011
  3. Sweden, Eksploria, May 3, 2011
  4. Germany (6 talks), October 2010
  5. Denmark (2 talks), June 2010
  6. Keynote, FCVW, May 2010*
  7. VCON at GDC, “a 1-day exploration into how Games-as-a-Service
    and Virtual Items have changed the playbook forever,” Panelist. March 10, 2010.
  8. Princeton University, April 23-25, 2009
  9. Kauffman Foundation, Second Life campus March 10, 2009
  10. “Protecting Virtual Playgrounds: Children, Law and Play Online,” Washington and Lee University, October 3, 2008.*
  11. Hamburg University Second Life Campus, June 17, 2008.** ++
  12. “A Test of the Law of Demand in a Virtual World: Exploring the Petri Dish Approach to Social Science.” International Communications Association Annual Conference, Montreal, May 25, 2008.+
  13. “Virtual Worlds and Public Policy” Interactive Software Federation of Europe, Brussels, May 7, 2008.*
  14. Huntington University, March 22, 2008.
  15. “Virtual Worlds and New Realities,” Emory University, February 11, 2008.
  16. University of Texas-Austin, Department of Radio-Television-Film, February 7, 2008.
  17. Congressional Internet Caucus, State of the Net, “Get a Virtual Life,” January 30, 2008.
  18. Highlands Forum, “Information Engagement”, January 27-29.
  19. Metanomics / MetaverseD / SLN, Second Life. November 19, 2007.++
  20. National Communication Association Annual Meeting, “Economics of Arden” with James J. Cummings. November 16, 2007.+
  21. Internet Law, Indiana University Law School, Guest Lecture, October 31, 2007.++
  22. Georgetown University Communication, Culture and Technology Program. October 23, 2007.**
  23. Virtual Worlds Conference and Expo, San Jose, October 12, 2007.
  24. Digital Games Research Association Annual Meeting, Tokyo, September 27-29 2007.*
  25. Ackerman Colloquium, Purdue University, July 23, 2007.*
  26. Games, Learning and Society Conference, Madison, WI, July 12-13 2007.
  27. Games for Change Conference, New York, June 12-13, 2007.
  28. New Media Consortium, Annual Meeting, June 7, 2007.*
  29. Conference of Indiana University Librarians, June 1 2007.*
  30. HAVAS/New Media Conference, with James J. Cummings, May 10, 2007.++
  31. Santa Fe Institute New Media Conference, Palo Alto, CA, February 14, 2007.
  32. MacArthur Grantee Conference, Chicago, February 8-9, 2007.
  33. Joint DARPA/Northrup Grumman /Booze Allen Hamilton conference on MMORPGs, San Diego, January 23-25, 2007.
  34. Annenberg School of Communication, University of Pennsylvania, January 12, 2007.
  35. IT-University Copenhagen, December 7, 2006.
  36. Terra Nova Conference, New York Law School, December 1, 2006
  37. Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, November 28, 2006.
  38. Georgetown University, Freshman Seminar in IT Policy, November 15, 2006.**
  39. Ball State University, November 3, 2006.
  40. Rational Models Seminar, University of Chicago, October 17, 2006.
  41. Games, Learning, and Society, UW-Madison, June 15, 2006.
  42. Metaverse Roadmap Summit, SRI, Palo Alto, May 5, 2006.++
  43. Harvard University Law School / Gruter Institute, May 3-4, 2006.
  44. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, February 2, 2006.
  45. Notre Dame University, South Bend, November 18, 2005.
  46. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, November 17, 2005.
  47. Gaming the World Conference, UIUC, November 15, 2005.
  48. Edinburgh International Games Festival, November 7, 2005.++
  49. National Academies, Washington, November 2, 2005.
  50. Austin Game Conference, Austin, October 28, 2005.
  51. Pop!Tech, Camden, Maine, October 22, 2005.
  52. State of Play III, New York Law School, October 6-8 2005.
  53. Spencer Foundation Summit on Games, Learning, and Society, UW-Madison, June 23-26, 2005.
  54. Command Lines: Conference on Governance in Cyberspace, UW Milwaukee, April 28-30, 2005.
  55. Virtual U Conference, MIT, April 16, 2005.
  56. ABA Intellectual Property Law Conference, Washington, April 15, 2005.
  57. Game Developer Conference, San Francisco, March 9-11, 2005.
  58. Serious Games Conference, San Francisco, March 8, 2005.
  59. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, February 25, 2004.
  60. State of Play II, New York Law School, October 29-30, 2004.
  61. Austin Game Conference, Austin, September 9-10, 2004.*
  62. International Communications Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, May 29, 2004.
  63. Forum on Community Management in MMOG5, IT-University Copenhagen, May 14, 2004.
  64. Yahoo! Research Labs, Pasadena, May 5, 2004.
  65. MUD Developer Conference, San Jose, March 28, 2004.
  66. The National Academies Forum on IT and the Research University, UCLA, March 11,
  67. GRAVEL program Symposium on Law, Economics, and Virtual Worlds, University of Minnesota, February 23, 2004.
  68. Working Group on Digital Culture, University of Southern California Annenberg Center, February 27, 2004.
  69. O’Reilly Emerging Technology Conference, San Diego, February 10, 2004.
  70. USC Institute for Creative Technology, Marina del Rey, January 27, 2004.
  71. Colloquium on Games, UCLA, January 23, 2004.
  72. The State of Play: Law, Games, and Virtual Worlds, New York Law School, November 13-15 2003.
  73. Graduate School of Management, UC-Irvine, October 22, 2003.
  74. Workshop on Playing and Learning, UCLA, October 17, 2003.
  75. Information Systems Seminar, Center for Digital Economy Research, NYU Stern School of Business, October 2, 2003.
  76. Digital Games Industries conference, ESRC Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition, University of Manchester/UK, September 19-20 2003.
  77. Black Hat Conference, “Hacker Court” (mock trial): United States of America J.B. Weasel. Expert testimony for the prosecution (Richard Salgado, U.S. Department of Justice) on valuation of digital assets. Hon. Phillip M. Pro presiding. Las Vegas NV, July 30, 2003.
  78. Institute for Defense Analysis, Consortium on Massively Multiplayer Online Games, Arlington, VA, July 8, 2003.
  79. Digital Genres conference, University of Chicago, May 30-3 1 2003.
  80. NetGames 2003 conference, Redwood City CA, May 22-23 2003.*
  81. Institute for Creative Technology, USC, May 14 2003.
  82. Social Science Research Council, workshop on Network Creativity and Digital Culture, New York, May 9-10 2003.
  83. Cyberspace@UCLA, March 28, 2003.
  84. Sociology 197H, “The Sociology of Cyberspace.” Professor Peter Kollock, UCLA Department of Sociology. February 27, 2003.**
  85. Guest lecturer, Law 348-0-01, “Law and Virtual Worlds.” Professor Lawrence Lessig, Stanford Law School. February 25, 2003.**
  86. Cyberspace@UCLA workshop on “Who Owns the Internet?” January 17, 2003.
  87. Highlands Forum, S. Department of Defense. December 4-6, 2002.
  88. UCLA Computational Colloquium, October 24, 2002.
  89. Community Forum on the Conditions of Children in Orange County, October 1, 2002.
  90. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Information Science and Technology study group on “Emergent Behavior in Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Games.” Woods Hole, MA, August 19-23, 2002.
  91. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Information Science and Technology study group on “Emergent Behavior in MassivelyMultiplayer Online Games,” Stanford University, April 2002.
  92. City of Irvine Forum on Child and Elderly Poverty in Irvine/Orange County, June 5, 2002.
  93. Public Choice Society Meetings, March 2002.+
  94. Claremont Graduate School, December 9, 2001.
  95. Western Economic Association Annual Meetings, July+
  96. University of Southern California, Birnkrant Development Seminar (Timur Kuran, coordinator), April 18, 2001.
  97. Public Choice Society Meetings, March 2001.+
  98. American Economic Association Annual Meetings, January 2001.+

Editorial and Board Positions

  1. Editorial Board, Game Studies
  2. Editorial Board Founding Member, Games and Culture
  3. International Advisory Board, Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments
  4. Co-Editor (with Laurent Michaud), Communications and Strategies, dossier on “New Challenges for the Video Game Industry,” March 2009.

Book Reviews

  1. Trigger Happy: Video games and the Entertainment Revolution, by Steven Poole.
    Resource Center for Cyberculture Studies, January 2004,
  2. Strategies for Electronic Commerce and the Internet, by Henry C. Lucas Jr.. April
    2003, Resource Center for Cyberculture Studies, .washington .edu/rccs/bookinfo.asp?ReviewlD= 202&BookID=
  3. Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Networked Economy, by Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian. Resource Center for Cyberculture Studies, bookinfo.asp?ReviewlD= 175&BookID= 144
  4. Game Theory Evolving: A Problem-Centered Introduction to Modeling Strategic Interaction, by Herbert Gintis. Journal of Political Ecology, volume 7, 2000.
  5. Updating America’s Social Contract: Economic Growth and Opportunity in the New Century, by Rudolph G. Penner, Isabel V. Sawhill, and Timothy Taylor. Journal of Economic Literature. June 2001, pp. 612-613.
  6. Immigration, Citizenship, and the Welfare State in Germany and the United States, ed. Hermann Kurthen, Jurgen Fijalkowski, and Gert G. Wagner. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis. Vol. 1(3), December 1999, pp. 327-329.
  7. Social Insurance and Economic Security 5/e by George E. Rejda. Journal of Risk and Insurance. Vol. 61(3) September 1994, pp. 552-4.

Grant Reviews

National Science Foundation, Fulbright, MacArthur Foundation, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Icelandic Research Fund

 Journal Reviews

As of October 2012, I no longer update this list.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Sustainability, Policy and Internet, Science, Current Anthropology, Computers and Graphics, Journal of Media Economics, Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology, International Review of Administrative Sciences, Social Networks, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, New Political Economy, Cyberpsychology and Behavior, JASIST, Decision Sciences Journal, Men and Masculinities, Southern Economic Journal, MIS Quarterly, SCRIPTed, Schmollers Jahrbuch, Empirical Economics, Jurimetrics, American Journal of Play, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, IBM Systems Journal, New Media and Society, Game Studies, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Journal of Public Economics, Journal of Human Resources, Review of Income and Wealth, Economics and Politics, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, European Journal of Political Economy, Contemporary Economic Policy, American Political Science Review, Journal of Economics/Zeitschrift fuer Nationaloekonomie, Viertel jahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung, Recherches Economiques de Louvain.

Publisher Reviews

As of October 2012, I no longer update this list.

Ashgate, Routledge, MIT Press, Pearson, McGraw-Hill, W.W. Norton, Worth Publishers, University of Michigan Press, Indiana University Press.

Major media appearances

As of October 2012, I no longer update this list.

60 Minutes, CNN, NPR, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, Boston Globe, Wired, Business Week, The Economist, Financial Times, Guardian, Liberation, Der Spiegel, RES.

Teaching Awards

Telecommunications Department Teaching Award, 2012

Undergraduate Professor of the Year, University of Rochester, 1999-2000.

Undergraduate Course Subjects Taught

Introduction to Games, Theory and Practice of Game Design, The Videogame Industry, Multiplayer Game Design, Videogames: History and Social Impact, Synthetic Worlds, Living in the Information Age, The Welfare State, Principles of Microeconomics, Principles of Macroeconomics.

Graduate Course Subjects Taught

Game Design, Synthetic Worlds, Evolutionary Psychology and Media, Microeconomics for Policy Analysis, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Statistics for Policy Analysis, Philosophy of Inquiry.

Teaching Evaluations
Available on request.

Curriculum Development

  1. Bachelor’s of Science in Game Design. New undergraduate degree. Indiana University, launched August 2015. Visionary and lead administrative contact.
  2. Undergraduate Video Game Design program, a curriculum leading to the Certificate in Game Studies, 2012. Department of Telecommunications, Indiana University.
  3. “The Quest for Isadore’s Tome of Reckoning: An Algebra Adventure for 1-6 Players,” an experimental lesson in algebra using open-source software from the persistent online fantasy world Never Winter Nights. With Chris Smith of the UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. 2003.
  4. “Principles of Macroeconomics Online,” an online adaptation of the standard Principles of Macroeconomics course. Cal State Fullerton College of Business, Fall 2002.
  5. “Force and Desire,” an experimental course using 2×2 game play to teach Game Theory, Politics, and Culture, University of Rochester, Spring 2000.
  6. Minor Program in Game Design, prepared for CSU Fullerton College of Business and Economics. 2004.

Department Service

  1. Director of Graduate Studies, 2005-2007
  2. Recruiting Committee, various years
  3. Merit Review Committee, various years
  4. Graduate Committee, various years
  5. Undergraduate Committee, various years

School Service

  1. Unit chair, 2015-2017
  2. BS in Game Design, Director, 2014-2017
  3. Tenure and Promotion Committee, 2015-2021
  4. Undergraduate Curriculum Committee, 2013-2015

University Service

  1. University Athletics Committee, 2021 –
  2. Lead developer and founder, Bachelor of Science in Game Design (launched August 2015), 2011-2015
  3. Media School Dean Search Committee, 2014-2015, 2021-2022
  4. Digital Humanities review committee, 2012-2014
  5. Campus e-Learning Committee, 2013-2014
  6. Planning Committee, Chair, Center for Digital Engagement, PTI, 2013-2014
  7. Guest lectures and seminars (various years)

Community Service

Volunteer teacher, Economics, Government, and Western Civilization, St. Benedict’s Catholic Classical School, Ellettsville, Indiana

Indiana University Hospice volunteer, Hospice House and in-home patient care

Consulting and Expert Witness Service

Rates available on request.